Lightning travels on saline water to land because electrical currents travel by the path of least resistance. The electrical currents generated by lightning are as high as 300 million volts and from ten to twenty thousand amps. Lightning strikes on land produce powerful sound waves and local warming of water. CG lightning does not affect the human eye. Volcanic lightning strikes more land than sea. Therefore, lightning traveling on water is not a dangerous phenomenon, but it is an interesting mystery.
CG lightning is invisible to the human eye
The type of lightning that can damage most of our possessions is called CG lightning, and it originates on the ground. The stepped leader carries the negative charge up from the Earth, and the positively charged streamer follows. The two particles then interact, creating an electrical current. This process occurs within one millionth of a second. The human eye cannot see lightning formation in water, but it is highly destructive to buildings and other structures.
The CG flashes that are most visible in the UK are associated with storms centered on a cold front. The cloud formations that produce these lightning are embedded in polar maritime air masses, which are marked on synoptic charts as troughs. This is the source of instability in the atmosphere. The warm ocean, however, can produce CG flashes infrequently but with high power compared to a typical lightning strike.
CG lightning is the most common type of thunderstorm light, but it can also appear in other environments, including water. It is so rare that it is impossible to see it on land, but it is visible in water. The human eye can’t distinguish the difference between the two types of lightning. There are three main types of lightning – CG, LS, and HS. Each one has different properties, but all three types are extremely beautiful.
CG is usually accompanied by sprites. The positive type, which is the most common, is associated with supercell thunderstorms, which have a trailing stratiform precipitation region. Positive CGs rarely have branches, and their light is often very bright and intense. Positive CGs are the most common type of lightning in the water. There are two types of positive CG lightning, which can be seen in water, one in the water, and one that is not.
CG lightning is also known as “ball” lightning. The ball lightning was observed by scientists at the Northwest Normal University in Lanzhou, China, in July 2012. The ball lightning was thought to be natural and produced by chance during the study of ordinary cloud-ground lightning over the Tibetan Plateau. During this study, the scientists observed and recorded the optical spectrum of ball lightning, which lasted 1.64 seconds from formation to optical decay.
Side flashes occur when lightning strikes a taller object near the victim
A side flash occurs when a bolt of lightning hits a taller object close to the victim. The object becomes a short circuit for the lightning’s energy and part of it jumps to the victim. People typically experience side flashes when they are under a tall object for shelter from a storm or a lightning storm, such as a tree or a car.
The most devastating lightning strikes happen when the victim is struck directly, by being part of the main discharge channel. The second most deadly type of lightning strike is a side flash, which occurs when a bolt of lightning strikes a tall object near the victim. During a side flash, the victim is usually within a few feet of the tall object that was struck by lightning.
While the victims of a lightning strike don’t know the exact method of the strike, they should remain still and lay down with their heads slightly lower than their torso. If there is an emergency, a professional rescuer should be summoned. First aid should include checking the victim for an open airway, circulation and pulse, and calling 911. There is a small chance of fractures or major bleeding, although this is best left to the professionals.
Direct strikes are the most dangerous form of lightning strike and account for about 10% of fatalities. Direct strikes are rarer than side flashes, but they are the most deadly. The current from the lightning strikes the victim’s body travels across the skin surface and into the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Moreover, the heat from the strike may cause a burning sensation. When lightning strikes a tall object near the victim, part of the current moves to the tall object and then jumps to the victim.
Aside from the physical trauma, the side flashes can also be caused by electrical damage. If a lightning strike occurs close to a tall object, the impact will be more devastating than if it struck a lower object farther away. Lightning can result in lifelong neurological damage, including loss of short-term memory, physical disabilities, chronic pain, dizziness, fatigue, and personality changes.
Superbolts are concentrated in the Mediterranean Sea
Despite the fact that they are concentrated in the Mediterranean Sea, superbolts are not limited to the sea. The climatology of superbolts in this region is well-known, and this study extends these studies to the British Isles. The findings will aid in future research, which may better characterise the microphysical properties of superbolts. We thank the researchers for their contribution to this research.
This phenomenon is very common and scientists are still studying the trends in its brightness and energy levels. It’s not clear how much the sea’s salt content plays in determining whether superbolts are concentrated in this region, but it’s possible that it contributes to the hotspot over the Mediterranean. But scientists don’t want to rule out other reasons. After all, we are living in a world that is experiencing more global warming, and more superbolts could be a consequence.
There are three main regions where superbolts are concentrated. These regions have a high probability of producing TLEs, and they can’t be detected with photodiodes. However, superbolts can occur anywhere. Superbolts are typically located near the sea or inland only a few kilometres from the coast. Therefore, superbolts are highly concentrated in the Mediterranean Sea.
The probability density of superbolts in these regions is a function of their polarity and their spatial distribution. The median peak current for both +CG and -CG superbolts is 250 kA. In the Mediterranean Sea, superbolts are concentrated mainly in the Mediterranean Sea and arctic regions. This suggests that superbolts are concentrated in the Mediterranean Sea, and the Mediterranean is an excellent place to spot them.
These events are most likely to occur between November and February in the Northern Hemisphere. During the winter months, superbolts typically strike the western part of Europe, the Northern Atlantic, and the Mediterranean Sea. However, they are much less frequent over the tropical oceans, east of Japan, and off the tip of South Africa. Unlike regular lightning, superbolts tend to strike the water instead of land.
Volcanic lightning is more likely to hit land than sea
Scientists aren’t sure exactly what causes volcanic lightning, but they do know that it often occurs near the ground in dense clouds of ash and lava, or high in the stratosphere, near a plume of volcanic smoke. Scientists think that lightning is triggered when ash particles collide and build up an electrical charge. As the ash and lava cool, the electricity in the air between the charged particles and the neutral ash balances out the charges. During eruptions, the plume can be a few kilometers wide, or even higher.
Scientists also believe that volcanoes can release gases that are harmful to human health. These gases are known as quiescent gas, and they are released during periods between eruptions. Volcanic lightning is also common in ash clouds, especially those resulting from large, explosive eruptions. Experts at the National Weather Service in Anchorage and the University of Alaska Fairbanks have confirmed that the audible booms heard in coastal areas of Alaska occurred as a result of the eruption.
Scientists have observed that the Hunga Tonga eruption produced a shocking amount of lightning. During this volcanic eruption, the lava vaporized seawater and was fragmented into tiny ash particles. When the steam froze in the upper atmosphere, it formed tiny ice crystals, which joined the particles. The motion of these particles caused huge amounts of static charge separation. 80% of all lightning strikes recorded in the past two hours were split above the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai eruption. In addition to producing a devastating blast, the shockwave from the event was also felt across many U.S. states and Canada.